Articles

Links to my articles, and citations

CONTENT: 1. Debate articles (1.1. English & 1.2. Swedish: 1.2.1. Dagens Medicin & Läkartidningen, 1.2.2. Second Opinion, 1.2.3. DN, SvD, Aftonbladet, Gävledagbladet, Arbetarbladet, 2 . Scientific articles: 2.1. Links from Reference list in Wikipedia, 2.2. Abstracts from Medline list, 3. Links with articles & citations from Google Scholar (Dec 2009), 4. Older articles (Spanish & English. Scanned), 5. Archive of scanned material refered elsewehere in my sites

[This section is under construction and material in uploading process on week basis]

Dedication of my doctoral thesis to my dear friends Dr. Miguel Enríquez and Dr. Bautista Van Schouwen, MDs, which died heroically during the armed resistance against the fascist dictatorship of Pinochet in Chile. For the text, click on image

1.1.

What is behind Swedish cultural-racism

Sweden, The Pirate Bay trial. Profit-appropriation of global culture vs. public downloading is not a generational conflict, but ideological: Its solution is not juridical but political, down to the roots of our system.

Theses on the cultural premises of pseudoscience

Freud and the Swedish burn-out (utbrändhet & utmattningsdepression)

If religion is the opium of the peopleFreud would be the dealer,the pipe,and the nightmare   
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1.2.1. Sociologisk Forskning, Dagens Medicin & Läkartidningen

kejsarens

Kejsarens utbrända kläder [The Empero’s burnout clothes]

Utmattningssyndrom är en kulturellt betingad diagnos unik för Sverige

Om utbrändhetens epidemiologiska belägg

Arbetsrelaterad stress och epidemiologin av plötsliga dödsfall

Om utbrädhet bland invandrare

Är arbetsrelaterad stress primär orsak till plötslig död?

Arbetsrelaterad stress, självmord, och utmattningsdepressioner

 

 

 

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1.2.2.

Mina publikationer i Second Opinion

sjalvmord_430.jpg

Foto: stock.xchng

AP journalist report from Sweden misleading on Assange extradition case

Assange buried the Swedish neutrality myth

Om skandalen kring antidepressiva 

Från sorg till agerande: om skillnad mellan forskare och journalister

Under hot av minskad upplaga

Förenklat i DN om cancer och kunskapsskillnader

Kulturell rasism i öppet Sverige

Motsägelser i “Pladdrets tyranni”

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Mina artiklar i DN-debatt, SvD:s Bränpunkt och Aftonbladet debatt

Photo: Expressen. Stockholm 2000

 

DN DEBATT:  utbrändhet mest en modetrend

DN Debatt. Barnafödandet ökar igen – trots tal om stress

DN Debatt. Vi jobbar inte ihjäl oss

SvD:

 

Ferrada-Noli i SvD Bring Pinochet to an European Court of Justice. Pinochet måste ställas inför rätta

DN Debatt. Flyktingars självmord mörkläggs

Självmord ökar bland unga invandrare

 

 

Ingen statistik förs i dag i Sverige över antalet självmord bland asylsökande. Foto: Urban Andersson. Aftonbladet 5/10 2001

Staten nonchalerar flyktingars självmord. Aftonbladet debatt

 

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2.1. Links 2/01 2010 from Reference list in bio article (Wikipedia)

^ The findings enabled improvements of diagnostic instruments in clinical assessments of suicide risk, and help in identifying populations at risk for dying of suicide. Research results of Ferrada-Noli have been reported in the main Swedish newspapers and TV networks, and referred in encyclopaedic or health-policy documents of the Swedish National Institute of Public Health [5][6] and the Swedish Parliament [7]

^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K (January 1998). “Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 2: The association between methods of torture and of suicidal ideation in posttraumatic stress disorder”. Journal of Traumatic Stress 11 (1): 113–24. doi:10.1023/A:1024413301064. PMID 9479680.

^ Physicians for Human Rights, an international organization that promotes health by protecting human rights , headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., reproduced one of the above findings in the publication Leave no marks. It refers to the high statistical association between the specific torture methods inflicted to prisoners under interrogation and the specific suicide methods the torture survivors had later preferred, e.g. blunt force to the head and body was related to jumping from heights or in front of trains; torture involving water (submarino), with drowning; sharp force torture, with self-inflicted stabbing or cutting; etc. [8]

^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Lundin T, Sundbom E (January 1998). “Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 1: PTSD diagnoses, psychiatric comorbidity, and assessments of suicidal behavior”. Journal of Traumatic Stress 11 (1): 103–12. doi:10.1023/A:1024461216994. PMID 9479679.

^ Clinical Psychology Review published in 2009 a major independent review of the research on PTSD and suicidal behaviour [Panagioti M, Gooding P, Tarrier N (August 2009). “Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review”. Clinical Psychology Review 29 (6): 471–82. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.05.001. PMID 19539412. ], among other the discoveries above by Ferrada-Noli and his co-workers. The review stated that the authors “demonstrated that among refugees with PTSD, major depression was not substantially associated with heightened levels of suicidal behavior”, meaning that the path to severe suicide attempts in PTSD victims would not be mediated by depression – as widely concluded elsewhere – but linked directly to PTSD

^ Ferrada-Noli M (October 2001). [“Traumatic stress and suicidal behavior of refugees–epidemiological findings”] [Article in Swedish] . [Swedish Medical Journal] Lakartidningen. 98(44):4888-90. PMID 11729803 [9]

^ Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Sundbom, Elisabet (1996). “Cultural bias in suicidal behaviour among refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder”. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 50: 185. doi:10.3109/08039489609081407.

^ Ferrada-Noli M (1990) The study of risk factors in psychological autopsies. Paper presented at the 3rd European Symposium on Suicidal Behaviour and Risk Factors, Bologna, Italy

^ Ferrada-Noli M (1994). Psychiatric and Forensic Findings in Definite and Undetermined Suicides. An epidemiological and cross-cultural study. Thesis, Lic. Medical Sciences in Psychiatry. Dept Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet

^ a b Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Nordström P (February 1995). “Definite and undetermined forensic diagnoses of suicide among immigrants in Sweden”. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91 (2): 130–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09753.x. PMID 7778471.

^ Marcello Ferrada-Noli, Dept Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet (1996). Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behaviour in immigrants to Sweden. PhD disertation. Abstract [10]

^ Ferrada-Noli M (August 1997). “A cross-cultural breakdown of Swedish suicide”. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 96 (2): 108–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb09914.x. PMID 9272194.

^ Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Åsberg, Marie; Ormstad, Kari (1996). “Psychiatric care and transcultural factors in suicide incidence”. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 50: 21. doi:10.3109/08039489609081384.

^ Émile Durkheim (1897). Suicide, Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press. 1951. Durkheim postulated that poverty is a “shield” against suicide. He based his assumtion mainly in comparisons of the suicide incidence between poor and rich countries. Ferrada-Noli rebutted with several studies comparing socio-economic indicators and the suicide incidence between poor and rich regions (at county and municipaly level within the country), and also comparisons of the individual income of suicide victims living in poor, respective rich regions. He concluded instead that poverty is a negative factor in the incidence of suicide.

^ Ferrada-Noli M (December 1996). “Social psychological vs socioeconomic hypotheses on the epidemiology of suicide: an empirical study”. Psychological Reports 79 (3 Pt 1): 707–10. PMID 8969074.

^ Ferrada-Noli M (February 1997). “Social psychological indicators associated with the suicide rate: replying to the socioeconomic hypothesis”. Psychological Reports 80 (1): 315–22. doi:10.2466/PR0.80.1.315-322. PMID 9122344.

^ Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M (August 1997). “Psychiatric health, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors among suicides in Stockholm”. Psychological Reports 81 (1): 323–32. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.323-332. PMID 9293223. Fulltext pdf [11]

^ Ferrada-Noli M (October 1997). “Health and socioeconomic indicators in psychiatric catchment areas with divergent suicide rates”. Psychological Reports 81 (2): 611–9. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.6.611-619. PMID 9354114.

^ Ferrada-Noli M (August 1997). “Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited”. Psychological Reports 81 (1): 307–16. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.307-316. PMID 9293220.  Fulltext pdf [12]

^ Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention. Editors Wasserman D. & Wasserman C. Oxford University Press (2009). Pages 1-912. [13]

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2.2. Abstracts from Medline

 

Scand J Psychol. 2003 Sep;44(4):373-81.

Questions of culture, age and gender in the epidemiology of suicide.

Webster Rudmin F, Ferrada-Noli M, Skolbekken JA.

Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, Norway. frudmin@psyk.uit.no

Cultural values were examined as predictors of suicide incidence rates compiled for men and women in six age groups for 33 nations for the years 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Hofstede’s cultural values of Power-Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity (i.e., social indifference) were negative correlates of reported suicide, and Individualism was a strong positive correlate. The proportion of variance in suicide reports generally related to these four cultural values was R2 = 0.25. Suicide by women and by middle-aged people was most related to cultural values, even though international variance in suicide is greater for men and for the elderly. Suicide incidence for girls and young women showed unique negative correlations with Individualism. For all age groups, Individualism predicted a greater preponderance of male suicides, and Power-Distance predicted more similar male and female suicide rates. Social alienation and Gilligan’s feminist theory of moral judgment were hypothesized to explain some gender differences.

PMID: 12887559 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Trauma Stress. 1998 Jan;11(1):113-24.

Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 2: The association between methods of torture and of suicidal ideation in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K.

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

The study reports on 65 refugees with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and manifest suicidal behavior (40% had suicide attempts; 29% detailed suicide plan; 31% recurrent suicidal thoughts). Our hypothesis was that the predominant kind of stressful experience in PTSD patients might be reflected in their choice of method when pondering or attempting suicide. Relationships were found to exist between the main stressors and the respective subjects’ preference for suicide method. Particularly among PTSD patients with a history of torture, an association was found between the torture methods that the victim had been exposed to, and the suicide method used in ideation or attempts. Blunt force applied to the head and body was associated with jumping from a height or in front of trains, water torture with drowning, or sharp force torture with methods involving self-inflicted stabbing or cutting. Relationships between main stressors and content of suicidal ideation are discussed.

PMID: 9479680 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

J Trauma Stress. 1998 Jan;11(1):103-12.

Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 1: PTSD diagnoses, psychiatric comorbidity, and assessments of suicidal behavior.

Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Lundin T, Sundbom E.

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

The study comprises 149 refugees from various countries, reporting exposure to severe traumata, who were referred for psychiatric diagnosis and assessment of suicide risk. The stressors reported comprised both personal experience of and/or forced witnessing of combat atrocities (including explosions or missile impacts in urban areas), imprisonment (including isolation), torture and inflicted pain, sexual violence, witnessing others’ suicide, and of summary and/or mock executions. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed in 79% of all cases, other psychiatric illness in 16% and no mental pathology in 5%. The prevalence of suicidal behavior was significantly greater among refugees with principal PTSD diagnoses than among the remainder. PTSD patients with depression comorbidity reported higher frequency of suicidal thoughts; PTSD nondepressive patients manifested increased frequency of suicide attempts.

PMID: 9479679 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1997 Oct;81(2):611-9.

Health and socioeconomic indicators in psychiatric catchment areas with divergent suicide rates.

Ferrada-Noli M.

Harvard Medical School, Department of Social Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. drnoli@warren.med.harvard.edu

Comment on:

Psychol Rep. 1997 Jun;80(3 Pt 2):1065-6.

Psychol Rep. 1997 Feb;80(1):34.

Differences found in the incidence of suicide between the psychiatric catchment areas of the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm were investigated in relation to health and socioeconomic indicators during the study period 1990-1994. The hypothesis of the study was that negative socioeconomic indicators and psychosocial and health indicators denoting less favourable socioeconomic status may negatively influence the suicide rate of the demographic units in this cross-sectional study. The incidence of suicide between the areas was significantly different and increasingly divergent in the last year of the study period. The area with a higher proportion of suicides had also an increased proportion of individuals who retired early, lower life expectancy at birth, higher non-employment, lesser income among the employed, less public expenditure for education, less proportion of home ownership, and a higher proportion of persons bound to one-room dwellings. Disregarding the influence of ethnicity (there were no statistically significant differences on immigrants’ suicide between the areas) as well as in the availability of psychiatric care (assuming that similar quality of psychiatric care was provided by both sectors), or other demographic indices commonly shared by the areas, the possibility of strong effects of unfavourable health and socioeconomic indices appeared relevant for the explantation of an increased incidence of suicide. The findings provide new empirical contradiction to the socioeconomic hypothesis of the incidence of suicide, which postulated that populations with higher socioeconomic status may have increased suicide rates.

PMID: 9354114 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1997 Aug;81(1):323-32.

Psychiatric health, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors among suicides in Stockholm.

Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M.

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. drnoli@warren.med.harvard.edu

The suicide statistics for two high-income areas and two low-income areas of Stockholm county, with, respectively, low and high proportions of immigrant residents, were compared on health and socioeconomic factors to ascertain whether differences in such indicators might explain the overrepresentation of immigrants previously found by us in cases of definite and undetermined suicide. The findings can be summarised as follows. (1) The suicide rate was higher in the low-income areas, irrespective of ethnicity, and highest in the immigrant population of the low-income areas which accounted for 82% of all immigrants in the areas studied. (2) The suicide rate was inversely correlated with the respective figures for mean municipality-income indices. (3) Over the 4-yr. study period, the annual suicide rate increased among immigrants and decreased among native Swedes. (4) Of all categories investigated, immigrants from the low-income areas were characterised by the highest suicide rate (39 per 100,000) and the lowest mean annual income among the suicide victims (77.7), and native Swedes from the high-income areas by the lowest suicide rate (16.2) and the highest mean income (254.1). (5) The low-income areas manifested also lower mean duration of hospitalisation in primary care and psychiatric facilities, although the frequency of psychiatric consultations, was higher in low- than in high-income areas. Interrelations among low income, immigrant status, and poor benefit of psychiatric care suggest that proneness to suicidal behaviour among immigrants may have a social psychiatric explanation.

PMID: 9293223 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1997 Aug;81(1):307-16.

Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited.

Ferrada-Noli M.

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. drnoli@warren.med.harvard.edu

The ten richest and ten poorest municipalities of Sweden were investigated with respect to national statistics to assess the relationship between suicide incidence, discrete social psychological variables associated with welfare admittance among the elderly, and income of municipality. The relative frequency of suicide was 1.6 times greater for Swedes from the low-income municipalities than for those from the high-income ones. The group of municipalities with the highest suicide rate had a significantly higher proportion of older people in need of municipal social assistance at their homes and also a significantly higher proportion of elderly living in municipality-managed ‘service-homes.’ The findings replicate earlier investigations and suggest social psychological indicators denoting less favourable economic and social resources are also associated with both an increased suicide rate and a decreased county or municipal income. Some theoretical issues of the socioeconomic and of the external restraint hypotheses of the incidence of suicide, contradicted by the present findings as well as of Durkheim’s hypothesis of social control are discussed. Further, we suggest the consideration of negative socioeconomic conditions as a risk factor amid psychiatric clinical assessments of risk for suicidal behaviour.

PMID: 9293220 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997 Aug;96(2):108-16.

A cross-cultural breakdown of Swedish suicide.

Ferrada-Noli M.

Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

In this cross-cultural, nation-wide study including all immigrant groups in Sweden, over 10,000 suicides and undetermined cases occurring during the period 1987-1991 were analysed. Diagnoses of the underlying causes of death were classified according to ICD-9, all of the alternatives E950-E959 and E980-E989 being selected. Definite and overall suicide rates were estimated for each immigrant group represented. We found an overrepresentation of immigrants in the Swedish suicide statistics nation-wide. A total of 15 countries (60% of the immigrant population) manifested more observed than expected suicides and undetermined cases. This overrepresentation was statistically significant among immigrants from Russia, Finland, Germany, Denmark and Norway (the immigrant population of these countries represents nearly 50% of the total population of immigrants in Sweden). Other nationalities with an increased suicide incidence were from Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Korea, The Netherlands, France, Spain and Uruguay. The risk of an immigrant dying of a cause related to suicide was found to be 1.5 times higher than that for a native Swede.

Furthermore, the increased suicide rates observed among the immigrant groups in Sweden were found to be higher than in the respective countries of origin for 90% of the nationalities investigated, including those characterized by a relatively high refugee flow to Sweden, the rank order being generally the same both in the countries of origin and in Sweden. The immigrant groups with the highest suicide rates in our study were from Russia, Finland and Hungary. Suggestions are made concerning the possible involvement of underlying cultural, anthropological and genetic factors in this phenomenon.

PMID: 9272194 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1997 Feb;80(1):34.

Suicide and wealth in Sweden: comment on Ferrada-Noli.

Lester D, Savlid AC.

Center for the Study of Suicide, Blackwood, NJ 08012-5356, USA.

Comment in:

Psychol Rep. 1997 Oct;81(2):611-9.

Comment on:

Psychol Rep. 1996 Dec;79(3 Pt 1):707-10.

PMID: 9122346 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1997 Feb;80(1):315-22.

Social psychological indicators associated with the suicide rate: replying to the socioeconomic hypothesis.

Ferrada-Noli M.

Harvard Medical School, Department of Social Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

The Swedish counties manifesting the highest suicide rate, were investigated with regard to social psychological (acknowledgement of social assistance) and socioeconomic indicators (county income, and percentage of population in the lowest and highest income categories). Among these counties, were found the highest percentages of people in the lowest income class and also the highest percentage of households admitting social help. Gotland, having the highest suicide rate among the 24 counties of Sweden, was also the poorest, and in addition exhibited the highest percentage of persons in the lowest income class and the fewest in the highest income class. The findings challenge the socioeconomic hypothesis and suggest anew an association between social psychological strain, low income, and increased suicide rate.

PMID: 9122344 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Psychol Rep. 1996 Dec;79(3 Pt 1):707-10.

Social psychological vs socioeconomic hypotheses on the epidemiology of suicide: an empirical study.

Ferrada-Noli M.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. marcellof@psyk.ks.se

Comment in:

Psychol Rep. 1997 Feb;80(1):34.

Psychol Rep. 1997 Jun;80(3 Pt 2):1065-6.

In a recent analysis of the suicide statistics of two areas of Stockholm of contrasting demographic and socioeconomic status, we found the suicide rate higher in the low-income area. In the present study, the suicide rate of the richest and poorest countries of Sweden were compared to test whether the negative correlation previously found locally between average income in the country and incidence of suicide, also exists in a nationwide extrapolation. The poorest county of Sweden, Berg, manifested an increased suicide rate of 46.2 per 100,000 population [Ratio observed/ expected (O/E) 2.3], whereas the richest, Danderyd, had a rate four times lower (10.8; Ratio O/E, 0.5), being also lower than the Swedish mean suicide rate of 17.2. The findings do not support the socioeconomic hypothesis on incidence of suicide, according to which an increased suicide rate is expected to be observed in demographic units with increased income or economic output.

PMID: 8969074 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Forensic Sci Int. 1996 Apr 2;78(2):157-63.

Pathoanatomic findings and blood alcohol analysis at autopsy (BAC) in forensic diagnoses of undetermined suicide. A cross-cultural study.

Ferrada-Noli M, Ormstad K, Asberg M.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

In Sweden, ca. 25% of unnatural deaths ascribed to self-inflicted injury are finally recorded as ‘undetermined suicide’ (abbreviated UMSA), i.e. the forensic pathologist has not been able to establish whether the fatality was an accident or a suicide. In the present study, a series of UMSA cases was investigated with the aims to study the impact of immigrant status, and alcohol abuse on the occurrence of this forensic diagnosis on the mode of death. The alcohol issue was addressed by focusing on blood alcohol concentrations at autopsy (BAC) and post mortem signs of alcohol-related organ pathology. The results can be summarised as follows: Positive BAC occurred at an equal rate in the UMSA group and in definite suicides, i.e. about 45%. Among non-Swedish UMSA victims positive BAC was more common (50%) than among the Swedish (41%), whereas no difference was found in the definite suicide group. The level of BAC at autopsy was significantly higher in Finnish immigrants than in other ethnic groups. Organic signs of chronic alcohol abuse were found in 13 of 40 cases testing positive for BAC; thus, presence of alcohol at autopsy may reflect incidental intake rather than habitual overconsumption.

PMID: 8621122 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1995 Feb;91(2):130-5.

Definite and undetermined forensic diagnoses of suicide among immigrants in Sweden.

Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M, Ormstad K, Nordström P.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

A total of 707 cases of violent death (suicide, undetermined mode or accident) occurring in 1990 were investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Stockholm. The catchment area of the Department includes about 1.9 million people. Fourteen percent of the population in the area are immigrants. The largest single immigrant group was the 91,015 Finnish-born inhabitants, who represented 33% of the overall immigrant population. Thirty percent of all undetermined deaths and 20% of the suicides were among people born outside Sweden. A significant overrepresentation of the largest immigrant group (Finnish-born) was found in both the definite and undetermined suicide categories. There was also an overall overrepresentation of immigrants among the undetermined cases and a trend towards overrepresentation among definite suicides. Also, there was a significant overall overrepresentation of immigrants in the total cases of undetermined and definite suicide. Some psychosocial factors found predominant among the immigrant sample were social isolation, low social class and poor social network. The findings in this study indicates that immigrant status should be considered as a risk factor for suicide in Sweden.

Previous reports on the high suicide rates among immigrants in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States suggest that the overrepresentation of immigrants found in our study could represent a worldwide epidemiological trend related to voluntary and forced migration. Possible hypotheses that could explain this phenomenon are discussed.

PMID: 7778471 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2002 Sep 5;99(36):3534, 3537-8.

[On burnout among immigrants–epidemiologic objections]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Karolinska institutet, institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, avdelningen för socialmedicin. Marcello.Ferrada-Noli@phs.ki.se

Comment on:

Lakartidningen. 2001 Oct 31;98(44):4888-90.

PMID: 12362754 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2001 Oct 31;98(44):4888-90.

[Traumatic stress and suicidal behavior of refugees–epidemiological findings]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Karolinska institutet, institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, avdelningen för socialmedicin, Stockholm. Marcello.Ferrada-Noli@phs.ki.se

Comment in:

Lakartidningen. 2002 Sep 5;99(36):3534, 3537-8.

PMID: 11729803 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2001 Jun 27;98(26-27):3158-60.

[Occupational stress, suicide and fatigue depression]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Folkhälsovetenskap med inriktning mot epidemiologi, Högskolan i Gävle. mferrada-noli@hms.harvard.edu

PMID: 11478215 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2001 Feb 14;98(7):710-2, 715.

[On the epidemiologic evidence of burnout]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.

Erratum in:

Lakartidningen 2002 Nov 14;99(46):4703. Ferrrada-Noli M [corrected to

Ferrada-Noli M].

PMID: 11475260 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2000 Dec 20;97(51-52):6108, 6110.

[Is work-related stress the primary cause of sudden death?]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Erratum in:

Lakartidningen 2002 Nov 14;99(46):4703. Ferrrada-Noli M [corrected to

Ferrada-Noli M].

Comment on:

Lakartidningen. 2000 Nov 15;97(46):5294-6, 5299-300.

PMID: 11195452 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lakartidningen. 2000 Dec 13;97(50):5946-7.

[Work-related stress and sudden death epidemiology]

[Article in Swedish]

Ferrada-Noli M.

Högskolan i Gävle och Karolinska institutet, Stockholm. marcello.ferrada-noli@ks.se

PMID: 11188539 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Abstracts from Informa Health Care

Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

1996, Vol. 50, No. 3, Pages 185-191

Cultural bias in suicidal behaviour among refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder

Marcello Ferrada-Noli1 and Elisabet Sundbom ‌1

1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden

The study was primarily designed to assess the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among asylum applicants diagnosed as having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the impact of cultural bias factors (such as religion and nationality) in suicidal dynamics. The traumatic stressors reported in the study included being subjected to or forced to witness war atrocities, imprisonment, torture, sexual violence, other’s suicide, and summary or mock executions. The study included 64 PTSD patients who were examined as part of a diagnostic and suicidal risk assessment after referral. Suicide risk assessments were assisted with scores of the SAD PERSONS Scale. Most PTSD patients reported suicidal behaviour. Nearly half of the refugees with PSTD diagnoses had a history of suicide attempts. Religious proscription or nationality was not found to be a significant deterrent of suicidal behaviour, and no differences between the various religious groups were established on this point. Another noteworthy finding in the present study was that suicidal behaviour did not differ significantly between asylum applicants and refugees granted residence permits. Thus, the notion that asylum applicants might manifest a higher frequency of suicidal behaviour, possibly due to the threat of imminent expulsion from the country, derived no support from our findings. The results ratified our previous findings, which suggested that suicidal behaviour is more closely related to PTSD trauma diathesis and clinical features than to cultural bias.

Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

1996, Vol. 50, No. 1, Pages 21-25

Psychiatric care and transcultural factors in suicide incidence

Marcello Ferrada-Noli 1†, Marie Åsberg ‌2 and Kari Ormstad ‌3

1Lic. Med. Sci. in psychiatry, Researcher, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute,

2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute,

3Department of Forensic Medicine, Karolinska Institute,

Correspondence: Marcello Ferrada-Noli, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden

On the basis of the hypothesis that immigrant status represents a risk factor for mental illness as well as for suicidal behaviour, a study was performed on the incidence of suicide in two different areas of Stockholm County. Sources of information were forensic autopsy reports, files from local psychiatric care units, and demographic statistics for the areas and the period studied—1987–91. Our data disclosed that a covariation exists between suicide and immigrant status, and lack of psychiatric care. Immigrant groups were underrepresented among patients seeking psychiatric counselling and even more so among those admitted for inpatient mental heath care (p = 0.008). Assuming that adequate psychiatric treatment will prevent suicidal behaviour, our results suggest that the needs of immigrants are insufficiently met by mental health programs in their present shape. First, there may be a bias against help-seeking for psychiatric problems on the part of the immigrants. Secondly, there may. be a lack of awareness in Swedish mental health professionals with regard to specific problems concerning communication and symptom presentation, as well as concepts of honour, suffering, and ethnocultural values. Programs for the prevention of suicide in immigrants thus represent a new challenge for Swedish society and the mental care profession.

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3. Articles, citations from other authors. See here my article links in Google Scholar

4. Older articles

From Punto Final

José-Miguel Carrera


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. scanned ref. material

[Archive for scanned documents I refer in other sites, e.g. Professors Blogg]

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